Nearly one in four adults over the age of 25 years has either diabetes or a condition known as ‘pre-diabetes’. This is when blood glucose levels are higher than normal but not high enough to be diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. There are two conditions that fit into this category;
- Impaired Fasting Glucose (IFG) - When the blood glucose level is higher than normal after fasting for eight hours (between 6.1 and 6.9 mmol/L) but not high enough to diagnose diabetes.
- Impaired Glucose Tolerance (IGT) is diagnosed using an Oral Glucose Tolerance Test and the two hour blood test is higher than normal (between 7.8 and 11.0 mmol/L) but not high enough to diagnose diabetes.
It is possible to have both impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). Read more about pre-diabetes.
Who is at risk of developing pre-diabetes?
The risk factors for pre-diabetes are the same as those for type 2 diabetes. Find out more about who is at risk.
To assess your risk of type 2 diabetes go to the Life! website and take the risk test.
How do you know if you have pre-diabetes?
If you have a higher than normal blood glucose level on any blood glucose test this needs to be checked further.
This could be: You have a fasting blood glucose test result that is between 5.5 - 6.9 mmol/L. Or if you have a random blood glucose test that is between 5.5 - 11.0 mmol/L.
Your doctor may order an Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT) this test can tell your doctor if you have:
1. Normal glucose levels
2. Impaired fasting glucose
3. Impaired glucose tolerance
4. Type 2 diabetes
What is the treatment?
If you are diagnosed with pre-diabetes, the treatment involves the same lifestyle changes that are recommended for people diagnosed with diabetes. For most, this will include:
• Regular physical activity
• Healthy eating
• If necessary, weight loss
If you have pre-diabetes you have a higher risk of developing heart disease. It is important to have your blood pressure and cholesterol levels checked regularly. The Life! Helping you prevent diabetes, heart disease and stroke program is co-ordinated by Diabetes Victoria. It is an evidence based way to prevent diabetes, heart disease and stroke in the community. Find out more about Life! program on the website or contact 13 RISK (13 7475).
Can type 2 diabetes be avoided?
Evidence shows that people with pre-diabetes can delay or reduce their risk of developing type 2 diabetes by adopting the following lifestyle changes. However it can be difficult and most people require support to do this. The Life! program has been designed to help people make the needed changes.
To eat healthily, your meals need to be lower in fat, particularly saturated fat and based on high fibre carbohydrate foods such as wholegrain breads, cereals, beans, lentils, vegetables and fruits. For more detailed information and to work out a meal plan that’s right for you, talk to an Accredited Practising Dietitian or call Diabetes Victoria on 1300 136 588 to speak to a dietitian.
Find out more about healthy eating to prevent or manage type 2 diabetes.
Regular physical activity
Regular physical activity helps your body to use insulin better and lowers the blood glucose level. Aim for at least 30 minutes of physical activity on most, if not all days of the week.
Find out more about physical activity for preventing or managing type 2 diabetes.