Diabetes is a chronic disease with serious complications, currently affecting an estimated 1.7 million Australians. Almost 300 Australians develop diabetes every day, yet research shows that most Australians think diabetes is not a serious illness and believe they have a lower risk of developing it than they actually do.
Diabetes Mellitus (Diabetes) is the name given to a group of conditions that occurs when the level of glucose (a type of sugar) in the blood becomes higher than normal. Insulin is a hormone that moves glucose from your blood stream, into the cells of your body where it is used for energy. When you have diabetes, the body either can’t make enough insulin or the insulin that is being made does not work properly. This causes your blood glucose level to become too high. High blood glucose levels can affect both your short and long term health.
There are two main types of diabetes – type 1 and type 2. At this stage there is no known cure for either type of diabetes, although diabetes can be well managed.
- Over 100,000 Australian adults develop diabetes each year
- More than 1.2 million Australians are currently diagnosed with diabetes. Including undiagnosed Australians, it is estimated that about 1.7 million people in Australia have diabetes
- An estimated 2–3 million Australians have pre-diabetes and are at high risk of developing type 2 diabetes
- Every year 20,000 women in Australia develop gestational diabetes during pregnancy
How is diabetes diagnosed?
Diabetes is diagnosed by a blood test. Most people with type 1 diabetes and many with type 2 diabetes will present with symptoms of diabetes such as: increased thirst, urination and tiredness. Some people will also have signs of slow healing of wounds or persistent infections. However many people with type 2 diabetes have no symptoms at all.
The blood test is taken from a vein and sent to a pathology lab. The test may be either a fasting test (no food or fluid except water for eight hours), e.g. overnight, or a random test taken anytime during the day, or an Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT).
Diabetes is diagnosed when
- Symptoms are present and fasting blood test result is at or above 7.0mmol/L or a random blood test result is at or above 11.1mmol/L
- HbA1c blood test result is at or above 6.5% (48 mmol/mol)
- There have been no symptoms and two abnormal blood glucose tests (as above) on separate days.